By Aziz Al-Azmeh
This can be a research of the constitution and composition of the respectable studying present in medieval Arabic tradition. This includes common sciences either exoteric and esoteric (medicine, alchemy, astrology and others), conventional and non secular sciences (such as theology, exegesis and grammar), philosophical sciences akin to metaphysics and ethics, as well as technical disciplines like political thought and medication, and different fields of highbrow endeavour.
The ebook identifies and develops a couple of conceptual components universal to a number of the components of legitimate Arabic clinical discourse, and indicates how those components combine those disparate sciences into an old epistemic harmony. the explicit profile of every of those diversified sciences is defined, when it comes to its conceptual content material, yet specially with regards to its historic situations. those are obvious to be embodied in a few institutional helps, either highbrow and social: paradigms, colleges of notion, associations of studying, pedagogic suggestions, and a physique of execs, all of which mix to shape sure, albeit ever renewed, traditions of studying. ultimately, an try out is made to narrate Arabic clinical wisdom within the center a long time to styles of clinical and political authority.
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Extra info for Arabic Thought and Islamic Societies
It stituted except through another, and which can receive contradictories and opposites. 12' Attention to the specific terms used to convey this constellation of associated notions is therefore not very important for the present argument. Essentially uniform in terms of the notion of qabil, the different terms identify their users as belonging to specific historical schools of thought, rather than adherents to distinct notions. Matter, hyle, substratum, all refer to a substance which is relative in an hierarchical sense, attributing a differential materiality to things, such as the undefined matter of a certain elementary form, which in its turn acts as the matter of a superior form, or of a substratum which can be seen as providing a substrate to something which is itself the substrate of another, or of the nature of a nature.
58711 191), 176 thought fire to be the most sublime and the closest to the spheres, without this contention effecting the nature of fire, only its status on the ladder of sublimity. The status is underscored in any case by its natural property as being the lightest of the elements, its natural location is the highest and physically the most elevated. The four elements are thus the four substrata inhabited by bodies they constitute. '" Humidity and dryness, 'the principles of passive quality','" qualify water and earth respectively, whereas heat and cold respectively qualify fire and air.
Minerals are subterranean products of the various qualitative and quantitative combinations into which vapours and smoke enter,'Ox and these minerals are divided into those of a tough constitution, comprising malleable and non-malleable metals, and those of a weak constitution, which are classified as salts and fatty substances. Each category of mineral has properties expressed in terms of their liability to combination, their propensity for disintegration and other similar ones. The malleable metals are termed the Seven Bodies comprising gold, silver, zinc, lead, copper, iron and one on whose 26 Arabic Thought: Hierarchy, Substance and Combination identity there was no agreement, and they are composed by the thorough admixture of water and earth and a cooking of the earth by the water to a degree where a malleable fatty humidity is produced.