By Werner Lierse (auth.)
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Extra info for Applied Anatomy of the Pelvis
The resultant 39 of the longitudinal and sagittal components acts in an inward and cranial direction, opposing the abdominal cavity's internal pressure. In the dorsal region it acts in an inward and caudal direction and not against the internal pressure. A mechanical view of the dorsal lamina of the rectus sheath allows the different anatomical configurations to be reduced to a common denominator. The mechanical forces vary according to the form of the pelvis and the strength of the muscles. Caudal marginal pulling by the dorsal lamina of the rectus sheath, itself conditioned by the mechanical forces, varies correspondingly.
The anlage; 2. Growth energy; 3. Vertebral column loading. Vertebral column loading stimulates widening and hollowing out of the sacrum, increase in transverse diameter of the pelvis and limitation of anteroposterior diameter. Like the skull, the pelvis exhibits numerous individual variations. These are classified in terms of the following characteristics: Pelvic anomalies caused by growth inhibition are: - Generally contracted pelvis - Rachitic pelvis - Chondrodystrophic pelvis with reniform narrowing of inlet - Osteomalacia of the pelvis - Paget's or von Recklinghausen's disease - Pelvis associated with spondylolisthesis - Pelvis with one side of the sacrum smaller than the other (Naegele's pelvis) - Pelvis with intrapelvic protrusion of acetabular floor - Pelvis narrowed in association with lumbarization or sacralization.
The gemellus superior originates from the lower part of the ischial spine, the gemellus inferior from the upper part. Running between these two muscles in the lesser sciatic notch is the tendon of the obturator internus. Distal to that of the gemellus inferior are the origins of four muscles: quadratus femoris, semimembranosus, biceps femoris and semitendinosus. Distal to these is the extensive origin of the adductor magnus. The outer surface of the pelvis beyond the obturator foramen gives rise to three adductor muscle groups and the obturator externus (and adductor functionally and from its innervation).