Anatomy: Embryology - Gross Anatomy - Neuroanatomy - - download pdf or read online

By Raymond E. Papka Ph.D. (auth.), Raymond E. Papka Ph.D. (eds.)

Since 1975, the Oklahoma Notes were one of the most generally used studies for clinical scholars getting ready for Step 1 of the USA scientific Licensing exam. OKN: Anatomy takes a unified method of the topic, overlaying Embryology, Neuroanatomy, Histology, and Gross Anatomy. Like different Oklahoma Notes, Anatomy comprises self-assessment questions, geared to the present USMLE layout; tables and figures to advertise fast self-assessment and evaluation; a low cost; and insurance of simply the data had to determine forums success.

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In pregnancies with complications, lung maturation can be monitored by surfactant levels in the amniotic fluid. DIGESTIVE SYSTEM AND MESENTERIES SYSTEM I. PRIMITIVE GUT A. Basic Organization of Gut Tube 1. The digestive system acquires its basic tubular configuration as a result of body folding. The primitive foregut, midgut and hindgut regions are identifiable by the fourth week of development. 2. The endoderm of the primitive gut will persist to form the epithelial parenchyma for all segments of the definitive gut, for all parts of the respiratory system caudal to the stomodeum, and for the accessory digestive glands (liver and pancreas).

Myotomes are responsible for the development of the segmentally arranged motor spinal nerves; the association of a myotome and its segmental spinal nerve is established very early in development and is retained through subsequent stages of migration and differentiation. B. Body Wall Musculature 1. Dorsal or Epaxial Muscles. a) Each myotome divides into a dorsal portion (epimere) which migrates dorsally and medially toward the developing neural arches and transverse processes of the vertebrae. b) Epaxial musculature is accompanied by its nerve supply which persists in the adult as the dorsal primary ramus (posterior primary division) of a spinal nerve.

Mesodermal cells will accumulate around the periphery of the anal membrane to produce the ectodermal-lined anal pit or proctodeum; subsequent degeneration of the membrane produces the definitive anal opening and the lower one-third of the anal canal. 2. Hindgut derivatives. The digestive portion of the hindgut contributes to the formation of the descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum and upper two-thirds of the anal canal; 40 3. 4. E. the lower one-third develops from the proctodeum. The junction of endodermal and ectodermal areas is indicated by the pectinate-line at the level of the anal valves.

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