By Chris Guy, Dominic Ffytche
The advent of X-ray computed tomography (CT) 25 years in the past revolutionized clinical imaging; X-ray CT itself supplied the 1st transparent cross-sectional photos of the human physique, with colossal distinction among kinds of tender tissue. the long-lasting legacy of CT is, even if, the spur that it gave to the following creation of tomographic imaging innovations into diagnostic nuclear drugs and the terribly speedy improvement of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) over this era.
This e-book is a non-mathematical creation to the rules underlying glossy scientific imaging, taking tomography as its primary topic. the 1st 3 chapters hide the final rules of tomography, a survey of the atomic and nuclear physics which underpins smooth imaging, and a evaluate of the most important matters concerned about radiation safeguard. the next chapters deal in flip with X-ray radiography, gamma imaging, MRI and ultrasound. The medical position of diagnostic imaging is illustrated within the ultimate bankruptcy by utilizing fictional scientific histories. 3 appendices supply a extra mathematical history to the tomographic procedure, the rules of mathematical Fourier tools, and the maths of MRI.
This revised version contains new introductory sections at the proper physics of molecules mostly, and water, particularly. each bankruptcy now has a desk of key issues with cross-references to different sections. numerous figures have additionally been revised.
The publication is meant to supply a wide introductory heritage to tomographic imaging for 2 teams of readers: the physics or engineering undergraduate taking into account focusing on scientific physics, and the scientific scholar or clinician utilizing tomographic strategies in learn and scientific perform.
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Additional info for An introduction to the principles of medical imaging
If we denote the position of this number within the projection as x′, we can write P(x′) = ∫µds, where the element ds is an element of length along the particular line of sight across the slice. As we move along the projection, we vary x′, and build up the profile, P(x′) of this particular projection The next step requires Fourier analysis. We make the Fourier transform of our projection — F(P(x′)). The central slice theorem of Fourier theory allows to say that this is exactly the same thing as one profile of the 2D Fourier transform of µ(X, Y ), or put another way, one line of our required K-space map of the slice.
After the war, these scientists carried their experience back into academia and industry and developed the larger scale scientific and technological enterprises along the same managed lines. All modern commercially produced medical imaging systems owe their existence to this type of science and engineering team organisation. Nuclear medicine, ultrasonic imaging and nuclear magnetic resonance were all developed from wartime technologies between 1947 and the present day. X-ray Radiography: The First Revolution Diagnostic medical imaging started just over 100 years ago with the discovery of X-rays by Roentgen in 1896.
By concentrating on one thin slice at time, this confusion can be avoided. Thus the starting point for most tomographic image reconstruction is a set of shadows or projections of a particular thin 2D slice through the patient. The Numbers in a Box Puzzle The process of tomographic image reconstruction can be thought of as a way of solving the following puzzle. Consider a square array or matrix of positive numbers whose values we would like to know. Imagine that the array is sealed inside an opaque box so that we can’t actually see it but that we have a way of finding the sums of the hidden numbers along the rows, columns and principal diagonals.