Topology

Read e-book online Algebraic Topology: Homology and Cohomology PDF

By Andrew H. Wallace

This self-contained textual content is acceptable for complex undergraduate and graduate scholars and will be used both after or at the same time with classes ordinarily topology and algebra. It surveys a number of algebraic invariants: the basic workforce, singular and Cech homology teams, and numerous cohomology groups.

Proceeding from the view of topology as a sort of geometry, Wallace emphasizes geometrical motivations and interpretations. as soon as past the singular homology teams, although, the writer advances an knowing of the subject's algebraic styles, leaving geometry apart to be able to examine those styles as natural algebra. a variety of routines look through the textual content. as well as constructing scholars' considering by way of algebraic topology, the workouts additionally unify the textual content, considering that a lot of them characteristic effects that seem in later expositions. huge appendixes supply useful studies of history material.

Reprint of the W. A. Benjamin, Inc., long island, 1970 variation.

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Example text

In the terminology of Definition 1-24, the construction of i* and j*, induced by i and j, can be described as follows. If a E HH(Y, Z) is represented by the relative cycle a in CC(Y, Z), then a is in the kernel of dp , so by the commutativity of the diagram i1p(a) is in the kernel of d. The coset of i1p(a) modulo 1-9. (a). (J). Another homomorphism will now be described, corresponding to the operation of taking the boundary of a relative cycle on X modulo Y. Take a E H,(X, Y) and let it be represented by a in the kernel of dp .

Now let a be a singular p simplex on E. (Definition 1-33) (Theorem 1-2) (Definition 1-33) = a1d(bBd(xox1 xp)) (Theorem 1-17) xp) - bdBd(xo x1 xp)] = a 1 [Bd(xo x1 dBa = di1B(xo x1 xp) = Q1 dB(xo x1 xp) By the induction hypothesis dBd(xo x1 d(xo x1 xp) = Bdd(xo x1 xp), since xp) is a chain of dimension p - 1. xp) =BQ1d(xo x1 = Bdi . xp) [Part (1) of this theorem] (Definition 1-12) This shows that Bd and dB have the same operation on singular simplexes, completing the proof of the second part of the theorem.

4) If a is a singular p simplex on a space E, that is, a continuous map of Op into E, and if a, is the corresponding induced homomorphism on chain groups, Ba = a, B(xo xl ... Bai The operation B so defined is clearly a homomorphism of CC(E) into itself for each p and for any coefficient group. In terms of the geometry of the situation it is reasonable to expect the boundary of a subdivided simplex to be the same as the original boundary subdivided. In other words, the extra faces that cut the simplex into the pieces of the subdivision all cancel one another out.

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