By John P. LeDonne
This is often the 1st accomplished exam of the Russian ruling elite and its political associations in the course of a massive interval of nation development, from the emergence of Russia at the degree of global politics round 1700 to the consolidation of its place after the victory over Napoleon. rather than concentrating on the good rulers of the period--Peter, Catherine, and Alexander--the paintings examines the the Aristocracy which on my own can make their strength powerful. LeDonne not just provides an entire chronological account of the improvement of bureaucratic, army, monetary, and political associations in Russia in this interval, but in addition skillfully analyzes the ways that neighborhood organizations and the ruling category exercised keep watch over and shared energy with absolutely the monarchs.
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Additional resources for Absolutism and Ruling Class: The Formation of the Russian Political Order, 1700-1825
It was characteristic that he picked children from the local meshchane to be soldiers in his squad. 61 Growing up in such a world, marked by constant drill, inspections, and transfers every spring from one part of the country to another, instilled a spirit of obedience and a habit of command—together with a great deal of nomadic restlessness—which many a nobleman would then take to his estate and his civilian post when he retired. The general mobilization of the ruling class in the 1700s had created a lasting shortage of personnel in the civilian apparatus—hence the concern, still in evidence 100 years later, over an influx of candidates from the dependent population: by November 1760 the curator of Moscow University, Ivan Shuvalov, had recommended the establishment of a separate promotion hierarchy (liniia) for nobles who had managed to avoid serving in the army.
It was not until 1818 that gubernia marshals were raised to grade five. Governors, as a rule, were majors general. The assembly chose two candidates for gubernia marshal; the governor confirmed one of them in office. In 1794, for example, the 170 nobles of the Vladimir assembly voted 164 to 6 in favor of Brigadier Taneev and 101 to 69 in favor of Major Alenin, both uezd marshals. Taneev was confirmed and remained uezd marshal as well. 20 The marshals' responsibilities were never spelled out in detail, and Kochubei complained in 1814 that there were too many misunderstandings between them and the governors, who accused the marshals of encroaching upon their prerogatives.
Unease at the growing presence of non-nobles in the secretarial staff must have motivated the imperial order of January 1724 forbidding the appointment of non-nobles to secretarial posts without Senate approval because subsequent promotions practically guaranteed access to the rank of college assessor, and it is difficult to agree with Troitskii's interpretation that it improved the chances of lower-class people to enter the hereditary nobility. 38 If indeed those chances improved, it was in spite of that order.