By Richard Bohart and Lionel Stange
Read or Download A revision of the genus Zethus Fabricius in the Western Hemisphere (Hymenoptera: Eumenidae) PDF
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Extra resources for A revision of the genus Zethus Fabricius in the Western Hemisphere (Hymenoptera: Eumenidae)
Other characteristics are Zethoides-like also, and point to a relationship with the clypearis group. It could be argued that the pallidus type is ancestral to Zethoides with chapadensis as an intermediate form, but there are several arguments against this. For instance, chapadensis has only one midtibial spur and gives ample evidence of being a specialized Zethoides. Also, the pallidus group has derivative structures of its own, such as the narrowed subhumeral area, the scalelike pubescence of tergite II, the strong lateral propodeal carina, and the often unusual development of the lamella of tergite II.
Most of these species are in the montezuma group which may have come from the Andean Cordilleran Area. An interesting "geographic facies" has been the loss of micropunctation from tergite I or II in such distantly related groups as bigltlmis and montezuma. The resultant greater reflectivity of a smooth surface may be of selective advantage under the prevailing light conditions. Area can be rather sharply dra'Wll as compared with its southern limits. that have reached northern outposts on the Pacific side include Z.
Agretti Zavattari, 1912. Arch. f. Naturgesch. 78 (Abt. A), Heft 4:21. Holotype female, Venezuela (Turin). -Length to apex of tergite II from 18 to 21 mm. Black with yellowish orange as follows: mandible, antenna, ocular spot, anterior and mesal margin of pronotum, tegula, parategula, wings, and legs partly. N otum and mesopleuron with abundant hair; basitarsus of female foreleg with numerous small, reddish, peglike spines on outside face. Vertex closely micropunctate, frons striatopunctate and polished in female, punctate with few scattred micropunctures in male; postocular area sparsely punctate, polished; frons with small longitudinal groove or depression above interantennal area; pranotum closely punctate, subhumeral area mostly micropunctate below; scutum closely punctate (male) or striatopunctate (female) sublaterally and anteriorly, mesopleuron moderately to closely punctate at least above; scutellum with weak longitudinal channel, striatopunctate (female) or punctate (male) on anterior threefourths; posterior face of propodeum striatogranulate, lateral carina irregular, not sharp, present for at least one-half of distance from spiracle to apical lamella; petiole dorsally with scattered small punctures and obscure shagreening.