Anatomy

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By T. V. N. (Vid) Persaud, Marios Loukas, R. Shane Tubbs

Many advances in drugs and surgical procedure should be without delay associated with advancements in realizing the constitution and serve as of the human physique. throughout the 16th century, the research of human anatomy grew to become an target self-discipline, in keeping with direct statement and clinical rules. no longer unusually, the learn of human anatomy has stepped forward to its common popularity and popularity as a systematic self-discipline, crucial for the perform of contemporary medication. This revised and accelerated variation offers anatomy from antiquity to the trendy instances. during this e-book, the authors current many students and lecturers; the time sessions, areas, and effect in their paintings; controversies in anatomy; and advances within the self-discipline. those subject matters run the gamut from early pioneers within the paintings to the advance of options that experience propelled the learn of anatomy to its present kingdom. The authors have tried to provide the large photograph in regards to the historical anatomists and routine that experience formed our present realizing of what we now name scientific anatomy. This superbly illustrated version spans approximately 4 centuries of clinical heritage. It was once a interval of mind-blowing achievements within which many nice clinical personalities lived, made very important anatomical discoveries, and produced notable treatises. With the sheer quantity of ancient anatomy literature to be had, the authors a a little eclectic and selective path in offering the main major fabric during this paintings. As even now guy maintains to benefit in regards to the constitution of his physique with new and noninvasive applied sciences similar to MRI, uncovering elements of the human anatomy by no means visible prior to, the research of the heritage of anatomy for that reason maintains along the examine of anatomy as a systematic self-discipline with no visible finish

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17 Figure 20. Page from the Paippalada Atharva Veda (on birch-bark). One of the four “books of knowledge” from the ancient Indian civilization, it deals with philosophical, religious, magical, and medical matters (Universitatsbibliothek Tubingen). The famous physicians of Hindu medicine were Susruta, Charaka, and Vagbhata. There is still some controversy as to exactly when these scholars lived. C. and taught at the University of Kasi or Banaras. He was a younger contemporary of Atreya who taught at Taksasila or Taxila, a famous seat of learning in the West.

C. D. 200, formed the basis of the social fabric of daily life in ancient India. For example, the nose was cut off as a punishment for adultery. Therefore, it is not surprising that rhinoplastic procedures were well advanced. Other surgical operations included the repair of torn ear lobes and cleft lip, suturing of the intestine by applying large ants followed by decapitation of the ants after they had bitten into the edges of the wound, removal of stones from the bladder and cataract extraction.

Thence they continue deeply close to the spine on either side. They 24 A History of Human Anatomy the forearms to the elbows where they course along the inferior surface of the arms to the axillae. They pass superficially down the sides, one reaching the spleen and its fellow the liver.  . The brain was considered to be a gland secreting mucous that cooled the body. The heart was described as a muscular organ of pyramidal shape and he placed within it the two auricles as reservoirs of air and the two ventricles as the fountains of life, separated by a partition (Diller, 1938; Kapferer 1951; Macdonald, 2003).

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